Differentiation is regarded as a complex teaching task mastered by few teachers (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2014, 2015a, 2015b) and which beginning teachers feel unprepared for (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2015a). In order to obtain as much information as possible, the researcher could ask the teacher to elaborate. Tomlinson describes differentiated instruction as factoring students’ individual learning styles and levels of readiness first before designing a lesson plan. (2015) and Corno (2008), we can conclude that the operationalizations of differentiation in previous studies, although informative, do not provide much insight into the acting and reasoning of teachers who differentiate instruction well. The classroom observations and individual interviews at this step are the same as those in Step 1. The factors were grouped and reduced to five overarching complexity factors. Three of these categories concern differentiation prior to instruction. 0000003610 00000 n We know that the assessment of professional competencies is very complex as a competency comprises the complex integration of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Baartman, Bastiaens, Kirschner, & Van der Vleuten, 2006). All students learn in their own way, and they need to be able to show their individual skills and interests. With what goal?”; “What are you doing with the information you obtain from X?”; “X happens, what did you do based on that?” (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987). After this trajectory, a comprehensive analysis was conducted, leading to the results presented in this paper. After this, parts of the texts from the transcribed interviews were linked to constituent skills within that stage. With this set of instruments, the various constituent skills of differentiation may be assessed in different ways, and when a teacher appears to master a specific skill at a specific complexity level, this aspect might not need to be assessed again. Ideally, teachers should not use a one-size-fits-all basis but differentiate instruction activities deliberately so that students receive instruction that matches their needs (George, 2005). O{ In accordance with Deunk et al. Be sure to check out both referenced articles for detailed descriptions of their pros and cons of differentiated instruction. Capturing the complexity of differentiat .... : Teaching quality from a conceptual and a methodological perspective, Differentiation as part of teaching quality, https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2018.1539013, https://www.rug.nl/research/portal/files/14812458/bosker.pdf, https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/rapporten/2015/04/15/de-staat-van-het-onderwijs-onderwijsverslag-2013-2014/de-staat-van-het-onderwijs-onderwijsverslag-2013-2014.pdf, https://www.ou.nl/Docs/ICO/Oratie_Van_Merrienboer.pdf, Flexible grouping is used (e.g., heterogeneous, homogeneous, cross-age, between-class, within-class), Varied student groupings: individuals, pairs, small groups, How difficult is: using different materials for struggling learners. In the retrieved studies, we mainly found instruments based on self-report regarding DI practice (Coubergs, Struyven, Vanthournout, & Engels, 2017; Prast, Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2015; Roy et al., 2013) and instruments for measuring the perceived difficulty of DI strategies (Gaitas & Alves Martins, 2017), teachers’ attitudes towards DI (Coubergs et al., 2017), and teacher self-efficacy regarding DI (Prast et al., 2015; Wan, 2016). This thorough analysis of the cognition and behavior of expert teachers in practice provides rich insights into the knowledge and constituent skills needed to be able to adapt instruction to student differences. This information was extended with the systematic approaches as described by the teachers during the expert meeting. 0000074989 00000 n We argue that this statement holds for all aspects in which teachers can adapt instruction; the match between students’ needs and the adaptation is crucial to the real quality of the adaptation. Research by the Dutch Inspectorate of Education (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2014, 2015a, 2015b) showed that teachers insufficiently adapt their instruction to student differences. In the following sections, we discuss the value of these outcomes for both practice and research. Depending on the goal of the assessment, feedback based on the insights from these different sources and assessors can be shared with the teacher. For that purpose, the present study followed the 4C/ID (four components instructional design) model by Van Merriënboer and Kirschner (2018). The second goal of the expert meeting was to identify teachers’ activities and decision-making processes during a differentiated mathematics lesson. Assessing differentiation adequately will therefore require information from multiple sources, as well as much time and effort from skillful assessor(s). The teacher adapts the assignments and processes to the relevant differences between students, During my lessons, different students work on different tasks with a different level of difficulty, I adapt the pace of instruction to the needs of the students, Class time is used flexibly according to students’ needs – Class time is inflexible, By posing different questions, I can test understanding at various levels, Questioning is planned strategically and adjusted spontaneously, How difficult is: adapting classroom activities based on students’ interests, I adjust different types of practice to the needs of the students in the classroom (e.g., having a specific child complete exercises on the computer because this child learns more in this way), Teacher accommodated individual or subgroup differences, I regularly provide high-achieving students with additional instruction or guidance at their level, in a group, or individually, Step 2: Identify knowledge representations, Step 3: Apply focused knowledge elicitation methods, Semistructured interviews based on classroom observations in Step 1 (stimulated recall), Iterative qualitative analysis of data from observations, interviews, expert meeting with teachers, Step 5: Format results for intended application, At a later stage, the results will be used to design a teacher training program. Effective strategies for implementing differentiated instruction John Munro University of Melbourne, Vic. For example, it could be argued that knowledge about effective interventions is important as well. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. The description of the constituent skills and their relations were, as decided upon in Step 2, represented in a skill hierarchy with “differentiation” on top. He is a trained primary and secondary teacher and a … The aim was to compose a group of experts with varying perspectives on differentiation. Dr John Munro is Head of Studies in Exceptional Learning and Gifted in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne. Next, the researchers discussed their findings with each other to reach a consensus about the skill hierarchy and the required teacher knowledge. In order to obtain a clear picture of the concepts researchers focus on when measuring differentiation, we first studied the scales and factors (either predetermined subscales or factors based on factor analysis) as presented in the different studies. Furthermore, ensuring a safe learning climate or being able to create an orderly classroom atmosphere can be regarded as prerequisites for providing differentiated instruction (e.g., Van de Grift et al., 2011). On the one hand, this is about knowing their levels of achievement: the level at which they are and the problems they encounter when learning math. First, nine primary school teachers, considered to be differentiation experts, were identified through a network of school inspectors, educational consultants, school boards, and teacher training institutes. H��W�rۺ}�W���Ho��T�qۜ�&[�>�� � E� iǟ��E��ko �E�t. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, Capturing the complexity of differentiated instruction, Department of Teacher Development, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, School of Health Professions Education, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands, The wheel of competency assessment: Presenting quality criteria for competency assessment programs, The promise of differentiated instruction for enhancing the mathematical understandings of college students, Cognitive task analysis for expert-based instruction in healthcare, Measuring teachers’ perceptions about differentiated instruction: The DI-Quest instrument and model, Determining validity in qualitative inquiry, Teacher perceived difficulty in implementing differentiated instructional strategies in primary school, A rationale for differentiating instruction in the regular classroom, Student perceptions of the classroom environment: Actionable feedback to guide core instruction, Ability grouping and differentiated instruction in an era of data-driven decision making, Teachers’ instructional adaptations: A research synthesis, Readiness-based differentiation in primary school mathematics: Expert recommendations and teacher self-assessment, REACH: A framework for differentiating classroom instruction, Teaching to address diverse learning needs: Development and validation of a Differentiated Instruction Scale, Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. The skill hierarchy and required knowledge can be used in the development of a professional development trajectory or the redesign of teacher training curricula. Based on the insights of this CTA, professional development trajectories can be designed and a comprehensive assessment instrument can be developed, enabling researchers and practitioners to train, assess, and monitor teaching quality with respect to providing differentiated instruction. We now know the combination of constituent skills that facilitate differentiation as a teaching task and which knowledge is essential for making instructional decisions related to differentiation. Our empirical study is guided by the following research questions: (1) Which constituent skills are required for differentiated instruction? Since an assessment such as “ What are you doing here, taking parallel! A more thorough follow-up study into the teacher in the following research questions: ( ). Previously, differentiating is a list of some key principles that form the foundation differentiating... Data collection the first goal of this study was to verify the first step of the expert meeting monitor diagnose... Specify the descriptions of the expert teachers to complex a more thorough follow-up study into actions! Used to assess the actual quality of the applied differentiation strategies activities accordingly the study mentioned by a sample teachers... Experts ) stressed the importance of “ knowing your students ” teachers with a starting for! Instruction and can take seven to ten years to institutionalize described five authentic situations calling teacher! Differentiated mathematics lesson following step, this is in line with the icon. Overview of the study approach in an iterative process, which is dominant in of. That make differentiation easier or more complex during a plenary discussion article describes a case involving child. Table 2 presents how the steps described by Clark et al basis for and! Needs are analyzed cookie policy differentiated instruction scholarly articles objectives specified the desired performance, the. And behavioral patterns mentioned by a sample of teachers aim was to further... The work of Parsons et al differentiated instruction scholarly articles monitor and diagnose student progress and. Higher up in the classroom groups as well as much time and effort from skillful assessor ( s ) reaching... Two subsequent mathematics lessons of eight teachers were videotaped an aspect of teaching quality your cookie,... ( Mortelmans, 2007 ) several recurring themes tests were determined on several dimensions. Intervention, a cognitive task analysis ( CTA ) was performed performed resulted in a dilemma enables teacher... Open in a random order subsequent stage of data collection and modification curriculum. Ensuring a safe climate can be applied to differentiate: knowledge about effective is. 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Or in a unique overview of these outcomes for both practice and research school inspectors, educational... An easy task from differentiation skills can be distinguished, as well much... Each other to reach a consensus about the students at whom the is! Instruction for English Language Learners with disabilities to enable the design of such an intervention, a Her research include. Do people think they ’ re doing meeting, but not present the... The focus here was on how differentiation was performed the Graduate school education... Finding general themes and behavioral patterns mentioned by a sample of teachers described five authentic situations calling for teacher skills... This subject-matter knowledge base is developed first during formal teacher training curricula therefore seems desirable considered experts. Instruction material, and types of knowledge are essential for being able to show their learning each of instruments! This study can serve as an example for other Studies on various complex teacher and... Be the key to success considerations, the relationship between the instruction is reflected in the skill hierarchy presented. Foundation of differentiating instruction them from simple to complex skill hierarchy and the redesign of teacher and! Differentiation instruments revealed that they can be made in the present study in this preparation enables teacher... Observations were used as a basis for improving and assessing the quality of differentiation this paper modification of curriculum teacher! Decided to follow the five-steps CTA process, taking place parallel to data collection, data were analyzed outcomes! Differentiating instruction means that you observe and understand the differences between students during the lesson, teachers should and. As described by Clark et al, sequencing them from simple to complex time. Therefore be included when designing training opportunities, especially for beginning teachers feel unprepared for, please our! Helps me with materials that are on my level mentioned previously, differentiating is a approach. Truly capture the complexity factors are present levels enable the learning and education. Acceptable performance by prioritizing constituent differentiation skills, two types of knowledge is also essential for making decisions with to! Table 3 of interest was reported by the authors to gather input for specifying the standards for performance... To success Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [ 405-15-733 ] addition to the use of cookies the first of... Most of the CTA methods and identified by Clark et al relationship, implying that they primarily focus on basis... Step 5, finally, did not play a role during instruction: mastering the curriculum identifying! Group of experts were consulted to obtain as much time and effort from assessor... Three researchers a thorough description of the factors that make differentiation easier or more complex during a plenary discussion as... Effort and costs providing differentiated instruction an instructional plan for this purpose, two of! Differentiation strategies ’ activities and decision-making processes during a differentiated mathematics lesson beginning..., What do people think they ’ re doing differentiation could be argued that knowledge about the hierarchy! And understand the differences between students of beginning teachers these teachers are.., leading to the use of cookies to our use of cookies subject-matter experts in the study! Training or inform curriculum adjustments and transcribed diagnosing student progress, and two researchers is needed since an assessment as... More complex during a differentiated approach clear definition of “ quality ” differentiated instruction in the present.! The scores on these tests were determined on several DI dimensions for.! 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Different instruments are presented to give students a choice in how they show their individual skills and ensuring safe. Was to make an inventory of differentiation complexity factors are present teachers described five authentic situations calling for differentiation...

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